For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Satellite open data to monitor forest damage caused by extreme climate-induced events: a case study of the Vaia storm in Northern Italy, Hurricane effects on climate-adaptive silviculture treatments to longleaf pine woodland in southwestern Georgia, USA, Multi-objective forestry increases the production of ecosystem services, Characterizing offspring of Dutch elm disease-resistant trees (, The potential role of aerial pesticide applications to control landscape-scale outbreaks of pests and diseases in British forestry with a focus on dothistroma needle blight, About the Institute of Chartered Foresters, http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp053.htm, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Countries where birch is listed among the 10 most common species, Countries where birch is not listed among the 10 most common  species, Copyright © 2020 Institute of Chartered Foresters. Most commonly in Scotland and other northern parts of Europe, Silver Birch is also attacked by another even tougher bracket, Hoof Fungus or Tinder Fungus, Fomes fomentarius. Growth and yield table for planted silver birch stands growing on a fertile forest site type in Southern Finland (Site index H50 = 26 m). Country Reports. Natural regeneration is the most common and preferred regeneration method for birch in many European countries. Downy birch can survive also on compact soils and on wet peatlands. 600 stems ha−1, whereas in a Norway spruce stand, the corresponding stem number can be ca. Origin. Photoperiodic control of germination in, Predicting the growth of stands of trees of mixed species and size: a matrix model for Norway, Norsk Institutt for skogforskning Rapport 1/77, Utviklingen av gjenvekst med ulike blandingsforhold mellom bartrær og løvtrær – II, Norsk Institutt for skogforskning Rapport 8/88, Ungskogpleie i naturlig forynget gran på middels og høy bonitet, Sensitivity of growth of Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch to climate change and forest management in boreal conditions, [Doctor scientiarum theses/Norges Landbrukshøgskole], Managing birch woodlands for the production of quality timber, The effects of heavy thinning on stem quality and timber properties of silver birch (, Functions for biomass estimation of young, Miljöeffekter avskogsbränsleuttag och askåterföring i Sverige – En syntes av Energimyndighetens forskningsprogram 1997 till 2004, Betula. & Cohn) Schr. After planting, weed control is found to be a necessary treatment. A native of both the UK and Europe, it ideally prefers damper soils than Betula pendula so is more commonly seen in the west. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Björk, asp och al i skogsbruk och naturvård, Statistische Rindenbeziehungen als Hilfsmittel zur Ausformung und Aufmessung unentrindeten Stammholzes, Teil III: Weymouthskiefer, Robninie, Bergulme, Birke, Marilandica-Pappel und Robusta-Pappel, Mitteilungen der Forstlichen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg 78, Basal area growth models for individual trees of Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and other broadleaves in Norway, Des sylvicultures pour la production de bouleau en France, Photoperiodic control of germination in seed of birch (, Growth studies in woody species VII. Mountain hare (Lepus timidus L.) may also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of the shoot. odorata (Bechst.) Both species have relatively similar site requirements, and they both have good productivity. All rights reserved. This article provides an overview of the most important ecological characteristics and typical growth and yield patterns of birch, based on European scientific literature. Birch leaf is the common name for the leaves of the tree Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Lemaire, 2000, 2004) and for other species with fast early height growth (e.g. In an uneven-sized birch stand, branch development of the dominant trees is too vigorous, and self-pruning is too slow for the development of high-quality saw timber. Where to Grow. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) has a significant effect on birch regeneration in the northern reindeer management area (Helle, 2001). The height curves for birch plantations are only applicable in stands under 60 years old (Oikarinen, 1983). Agestam (1985) found ca. Birches are ectomycorrhizal and provide homes for many large and colourful fungi, including several from the genera Amanita, Cortinarius, Lactarius, Leccinum and Russula. Most of the birch resources occur in mixed stands dominated by conifers but, in Northern Europe, silver birch is also grown in pure even-aged artificially regenerated stands. Birch is most often regenerated after clear-cutting. For forestry, birch is the most important broadleaved tree species in Northern and Eastern Europe. Betula pubescens. The curly grain property first becomes visible when the trees are ∼5 to 6 years old. Stem sprouts can be used as a regeneration method in short-rotation intensive management. (A) Site classes I–V from Strand and Braastad (1967)/Norway – naturally regenerated, (B) Site indices 30, 28, 26, 24 m from Oikarinen (1983)/Finland – cultivated, (C) Yield classes I, II from Schwappach (1903)/Germany – naturally regenerated and (D) Site indices 32, 28, … 16 m (base age = 100 years) from Lockow (1997)/Germany – naturally regenerated. Annual diameter growth begins in spring after the leaves have flushed. In young and dense birch stands, precommercial thinning is needed before the mean height of 7 m to ensure vigorous crown development and diameter growth of dominant trees (Rytter and Werner, 2007). Birches were pioneers in the march northwards of trees following the retreat of the polar ice cap at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8000 years ago. Photo: Erkki Oksanen. Thus, most of the naturally regenerated birches grow in mixed, conifer-dominated stands. Birch-leaf rust is caused by Melampsoridium betulinum (Fr.) Curly grain formation is a hereditary trait: a maximum of only 50 per cent of the plants grown from the seed of an open-pollinated curly birch tree exhibit curly grain formation. A few empirical fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981). For example in Finland, 11 per cent of artificially regenerated birch stands has been established by seeding during 1999–2008 (Anonymous, 2008). Light soil scarification is a recommended practice in the natural regeneration of birch (e.g. 10 per cent to the crown (branches and leaves) and ca. July is the best time to carry out pruning. Tolerant of a range of temperatures, it grows as far south as Spain and as far north as Lapland. Competition from ground vegetation and the coppicing of other deciduous tree species are the most important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration of birch. Typical features of the curly-grained wood include faulty cell orientation, abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown bark, giving a brown flamy pattern. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Report 15, pp. see more; Family Betulaceae . Thus, high-quality saw timber can be grown without artificial pruning in silver birch stands with densities over 1500 trees ha−1 until the first commercial thinning. Due to competition for light within the stand, the smallest trees tend to have suppressed height development, are susceptible to snow damage and will not reach the size of merchantable stems. Sarvas, 1948; Kinnaird, 1974; Karlsson, 1996). In Nordic countries, 1-year container grown seedlings (50–100 cm) are often used (seedling density 500 m−2; pot volume 75 cm3) in silver birch plantations. The leaves for medicinal use are obtained either from trees that have been cultivated or found in the wild. Name of the medicinal product To be specified for the individual finished product. In Northern Europe, the recommended spacing for a birch stand after precommercial thinning varies between countries from 1600 to 2500 stems per hectare (Braastad et al., 1993; Niemistö, 1995a, b; Cameron, 1996; Braastad, 1998; Zalitis and Zalitis, 2007; Rytter et al., 2008). Cameron, 1996). Hardy to USDA Zone 2 Betula pubescens has a very wide distribution. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Natural regeneration of birch is successful on many kinds of site, whenever a gap in the canopy is made by man or by natural causes. More often, the vigorous coppicing of downy birch is regarded as a silvicultural problem because the sprouts are strong competitors to conifer seedlings. Silver birch is even more shade intolerant than downy birch. Because birch branches die early but are not readily self-pruned, a completely branch-free trunk length of 5 m can thus only be achieved through artificial pruning on sites of above average fertility. Fertilization is not a common practice in the management of birch stands. 1–150. Deciduous. A mixture of micropropagated (e.g. In even-aged birch stands, up to 1600 trees can reach the merchantable stem size. Therefore, intensive pre-commercial and commercial thinnings are required for the profitable production of sawn timber (Cameron et al., 1995; Niemistö, 1995a, 1995b). As a mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula, forming a … R. BROWN, D . tortuosa (Ledeb.) Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009; Hein et al., 2008). Growth and yield tables and models for birch grouped into the following categories: Y = yield table (only in table format, model not presented), SI = height growth model (stand level), site index model, G = other stand-level growth model (volume, basal area and mean diameter), M = mortality model and self-thinning model, damages, R = recruitment model, gt = individual-tree growth model (height, diameter and volume), vt = model for stem volume, stem form, tapering, etc. It is similar in appearance to Silver Birch but has a more upright habit and a darker bark. This large wood-rotting fungus may even be weakly parasitic on ailing birches, but certainly as soon as a birch tree dies these brackets are likely to appear, causing rapid decay of the trunk and any branches that remain attached. In Europe, two commercially important treelike birch species occur naturally: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Many fungi are mycorrhizal with birches; a few are parasitic on birch roots, trunks or branches; and many more move in to consume the dead timber once a birch has died or been felled by wind or Man. According to the self-thinning models for even-aged stands developed by Hynynen (1993), the maximum stem number of a silver birch stand with a mean diameter of 25 cm is ca. Long, brownish-yellow male catkins like … The silviculture of birch aims at homogeneous even-sized stocking. In the forest management of pure silver birch stands, the goal is typically to produce high-quality saw timber or plywood, and silvicultural practices aim at the production of large diameter, straight and defect-free birch stems. According to the height curves developed in Central Europe (Lockow, 1997; Hein et al., 2009), flattening of the height growth in naturally regenerated birch stands occurs at somewhat earlier ages compared with the models developed in Norway (Strand and Braastad, 1967). COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON BETULA PENDULA ROTH; BETULA PUBESCENS EHRH., FOLIUM 1. A small birch admixture in a Scots pine-dominated stand has a negligible effect on the yield according to Mielikäinen (1980). The density of the stand is expected to be 95–120 mature dominant crop trees of 45–50 cm in diameter ha−1 by the end of a rotation of 50–55 years. In Finnish silver birch plantations with planting density of 1600 trees per hectare, first commercial thinning is usually carried out at the dominant height of 13–15 m to a density of 700–800 trees ha−1. Spring and summer drought on the one hand, and heavy rain on the other hand, can impede germination and the early development of seedlings resulting in uneven clustered seedling stands. In nurseries, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting (Lilja et al., 1997). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. The occurrence of natural hybrids between Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. Reports 13, Development of a new chemical method for distinguishing between, Effects of coppicing on the root and stump carbohydrate dynamics in birches, Predicting external branch characteristics of planted silver birch (, Potential for the improvement of silver birch (, Annual primary production and nutrient cycle in a birch stand, Biomass Functions for Pine, Spruce and Birch in Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Survey Report, Structure and development of mixed pine and birch stands, Effect of an admixture of birch on the structure and development of Norway spruce stands, Kaksijaksoisen kuusi-koivu sekametsän kasvu, Experiments on the rate of decomposition of forest litter, The Effect of Tree Species on the Biological Properties of Forest Soil, Natursvårdsverket. or hybrids of both species. With increasing stand density, diameter growth decreases before height growth, resulting in a very slender stem form. There are also scattered occurrences in the eastern parts of Central Europe. Betula pubescens Ehrh. However, the maximum rotation length for downy birch is 70–80 years because of biological aging, with decreased growth and an increased risk of rot. 10 m3 ha−1 for rotations between 30 and 60 years (Dahlberg et al., 2006). After this, growth starts to decline and, before the age of 100 years, the vitality of birch trees decreases and they become more susceptible to decay and other defects. Furthermore, a shortened rotation decreases the risk of decay, which is a typical defect in old birch stands (Hallaksela and Niemistö, 1998). Longer rotation times should be avoided because birch seems to develop brown heart rot at ages greater than 50––55 years (Hein et al., 2009). Birch seeds are small light-winged nutlets with a good dispersal ability (Sarvas, 1948; Jonsell, 2000; Wagner et al., 2004). when the dominant height is 7–9 m (Heikinheimo, 1951; Velling et al., 2000). Read more about this product Stem breakage usually leads to crookedness, wood discoloration and decay of the main stem (Heikkilä et al., 1993; Lilja and Heikkilä, 1995). In order to improve the genetic quality of planted silver birch, an extensive breeding programme including plus tree selection, crossing and progeny testing was started in the 1960s in Finland (Raulo and Koski, 1977; Viherä-Aarnio, 1994; Koski and Rousi, 2005). Search for other works by this author on: A Growth Simulator for Mixed Stands of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Sweden, Department of Forest Yield Research. 59 p. [in Finnish with English summary], Genetic variation and breeding strategy of birch in Finland, Effect of the latitude of seed origin on moose (, Directionality in fruit dispersal models for anemochorous forest trees, Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) I – Biomass production after 4 years of tree growth, Nordic Mountain Birch Ecosystems. While the branches of Silver Birch are pendant, those of the Downy Birch are more erect; other distinguishing features are the orange-tinge to the bark of a Downy Birch; and the fact that the leaves of Silver Birch are quite coarsely toothed at the margin while those of Downy Birch are more finely serrated. I Introduction, Taxonomic Index to the Maps 1–996, Maps 1–996, Self-thinning models for even-aged stands of, Models for Predicting Stand Development in MELA System, Effect of repeated harvesting on biomass production and sprouting of, Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality and growth of and damage caused by voles to, Effect of fertilization on the biomass production of coppiced mixed birch and willow stands on a cut-away peatland, Opbrengst tabellen voor belangrijke boomsorten in Nederland, Productivity of mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch affected by population dynamics: a model analysis, Restoration of former agricultural fields in Estonia: comparative growth of planted and naturally regenerated birch, Biomass equations for determining fractions of pendula and pubescent birches growing on abandoned farmland and some practical implications, Mixed stands in Nordic countries – a challenge for the future, Changes in stem taper for birch plants growing in tree shelters, Biomass production and allometric above- and below-ground relations for young birch stands planted at four spacings on abandoned farmland, Flora Nordica. Birches flower simultaneously with leafing in the spring and the seeds ripen in July to August in Northern Europe (Sarvas, 1952). The growth of Norway spruce and birch in young stands of different mixtures has been described for a large number of experimental plots (Braathe, 1988; Mård, 1996; Brække and Granhus, 2004; Repola et al., 2006). Their results indicated that growing birch overstorey in a spruce plantation up to commercial volume is profitable in Finnish economic and technical conditions. (2009). Silver Birch - (Beith gheal) The familiar native silver birch, Betula pendula, is a tall, deciduous tree with an open crown and gracefully drooping branches. Silver birch and downy birch resemble each other in their general appearance, i.e. Most of the birch resources of Europe occur in mixed stands dominated by coniferous species. Some 1600–2000 seedlings ha−1 are planted. In average growing conditions, ca. Birch crowns in dense stands are much shorter than those in open stands (Figure 4). which occurs in birch stands especially during rainy wet summers. There is even a demand for good quality curly-grained branch wood. For birch, there exist many local recommendations (e.g. Planting is the most certain, although also the most expensive, method to establish a pure even-aged birch stand. The most important site characteristics for the vigorous growth of silver birch are adequate moisture and air content. 2. Valkonen and Valsta (2001) presented an analysis on the economics of the two-storied birch-spruce mixture in Finland. Pagan and Paganová, 1994). Both species are fairly common throughout Britain and they share some of the same habitats, although Downy Birch copes well in soil that is waterlogged for most or all of the year. Birch species have a sympodial height growth pattern, which is typical of broadleaved tree species. Betula pubescens, also commonly known as the Downy Birch, is the lesser known white barked Birch which is native to both the UK and Europe. Native to North and Central Europe. Its papery-white bark - almost pink in young trees - distinguishes it from the downy birch ( Betula pubescens ) which has reddish bark that turns grey with age and is usually found in wetter habitats in the uplands. Götmark et al., 2005; Eerikäinen et al., 2007). Growes. Even if the total yield of mixed stands with birch does not exceed the sum of the components, some additional yield can be realized by favouring birch early in the rotation and spruce and/or pine later (Frivold and Groven, 1996; Frivold and Frank, 2002). The growth of birch is more vigorous than that of spruce at the young age, and growth starts to decline at the time when the growth rate of spruce has not yet reached its culmination (Mielikäinen, 1985; Agestam, 1985). Heavy thinnings, in turn, result in lower wood production during the rotation. The establishment procedure for a curly birch stand is similar to that for normal silver birch. Birch trees should be pruned during the growing season in July or well before the start of the growing season during late winter or early spring. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 53, On speckled birch (“mazer-birch”) and some other forms of curled birch, Meddelelser fra Det Norske Skogforsøksvesen, Initial sprouting, growth and mortality of European aspen and birch after selective coppicing in central Sweden, Influence of early thinning in broadleaved stands on development of remaining stems, Propagation of adult curly-birch succeeds with tissue culture, The quality and development of cultivated curly-birch (, A research on the regeneration of birch in South Finland, On the flowering of birch and the quality of seed crop, Zur natürlichen Wiederbewaldung ohne forstliche Steuerung, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Wuchsleistung von Birkenbeständen, Propagation of plantlets from leaf callus of, Functions for Forecasting of Timber Yields – Increment and Form Height for Individual Trees of Native Species in Sweden. Birches (Betula L.) are an essential ecological component in northern temperate and boreal forests. Order Betula pubescens saplings for fast UK delivery. It is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula), but grows in wetter places with heavier soils and poorer drainage; smaller trees can also be confused with the dwarf birch (B. nana). Betula pendula Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa Silver birch Downy birch Alder. In Northern Europe, birch is commercially the most important broadleaved tree species. (Nowadays amadou has been replaced by easier to produce synthetic chemicals. Clay and silt soils are often too compact for silver birch. It thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths. (a) The leaves of silver birch (on the left) are glabrous and broadly triangular to almost rhombic in shape with acute apex double serrate margin and a slender petiole. This subspecies is generally found in more lowland areas of Britain. Recently, a model framework within crop tree silviculture for silver birch has been developed by Hein et al. On the best sites, birch can reach a height of up to 24–25 m within 30 years (Oikarinen, 1983; Eriksson et al., 1997). Betula pubescens prefers a damper soil than Betula pendula and is therefore more generally found towards the West of the UK, yet is a tough contender and will tolerate most soil conditions. Nevertheless, planting is usually the preferred method if production of high-quality timber in pure stands is the goal. pendula ) has become very popular, to the extent that it has even been called Finland’s national tree, in their own local environment at least as many Finns have come across the white or downy birch, familiar but largely unknown. European Union herbal monograph on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. It produces yellow brown catkins in early spring. Both species have a wide natural distribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Atlantic to eastern Siberia. Betula pubescens Although silver birch ( B . Seed trees might be used on larger coupes. The recommended number of overstorey trees with well-developed crowns is ∼20 to 40 trees per hectare. odorata (Bechst.) It is recommended to carry out only one commercial thinning at a stand dominant height of 13–14 m to a density of 1000 stems ha−1. 1–83. Most of the birch resources are growing in mixed stands (Johansson, 2003). box ( Buxus sempervirens ), English yew ( Taxus baccata ), holly ( Ilex aquifolium ), hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus ), beech ( Fagus sylvatica ), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) and silver birch ( Betula pendula...Betula pendula AGM (silver birch): 25m, attractive white bark...Betula pubescens (downy birch): 20m, tolerates poor or wet, acid soil 1–483 + App. Yearbook 1991, The Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding in Finland, Genetic gain provided by seed orchards of silver birch in Southern and Central Finland, Rastové tabuľky hlavných drevín ČSSR. The margin is serrate but not double serrate. Kleb. Fries, 1964). Silver birch is a popular garden tree and often hybridises with our other native birch, the downy birch, Betula pubescens, which is more common in Scotland. Betula pubescens grows well on most soils but is particularly tolerant of damp ground, much more so than the Betula pendula. Birches are light-demanding early successional pioneer species, which grow both in mixed stands and in pure stands. Curly-grained wood is especially valuable (see Kosonen, 2004; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008) and unlike other wood, it is priced according to weight. In favourable growing conditions, the annual ring width is 3–4 mm. (c) Bark of silver birch (on the left) is usually towards the base of the trunk deeply fissured, coarse and dark, whereas bark of downy birch (on the right) is rather smooth and not coarse and fissured. A . Also afforestation with birch often requires planting. A high proportion of birch in a mixed stand has been found to result in decreased wood production compared with that of pure conifer stands (Heräjärvi, 2001). 400) and seed-borne (1200) plants is also a good option. However, a high shelterwood density decreases the survival of birch seedlings (Nilsson et al., 2002). Germany. Hybrids between silver and downy birch are considered rare (Jonsell, 2000) due to a biochemical incompatibility mechanism between these two species (Hagman, 1971). In Northern Europe, diameter growth begins by the end of May and ceases in the beginning of August. Because dense ground vegetation offers nutrition and shelter to voles, intensive site preparation and weed control are the most effective means to reduce vole populations and prevent vole damage. ssp. As regards height growth, the ability of birch to recover from moose browsing is considered good (Heikkilä and Raulo, 1987; Heikkilä et al., 1993). Although the emphasis is on even-aged pure silver birch stands, the management of mixed stands as well as the silviculture of downy birch and curly birch are also briefly discussed. In seeded and naturally regenerated young stands, more intensive silvicultural management practices are required than in planted stands due to higher initial density. Betula pubescens - Downy Birch is probably one of the toughest native species and its range extends into the artic. Cleaning is needed to remove other species, especially broadleaved sprouts. Early thinnings in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage (Härkönen, 1998). No trees are known to survive of this cultivar. It was first described by Schelle in 1903. Birches are also able to regenerate vegetatively by sprouting from dormant basal buds, when the apical dominance of the leader shoot is weakened or removed due to, for example felling or browsing damage (Kauppi et al., 1987; Perala and Alm, 1990). Successful methods for the vegetative propagation of birch by tissue culture are also available (Simola, 1985; Ryynänen and Ryynänen, 1986; Viherä-Aarnio and Velling, 2001). The different growth pattern and shade tolerance of birch and spruce obviously decrease the level of competition between these two species. and b = model for biomass, crown, branches, roots and bark thickness. Both silver birch and downy birch have a wide natural distribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Atlantic to eastern Siberia (Hultén and Fries, 1986). During the autumn of 1999, the occurrence of the ascomycete Anisogramma virgultorum on saplings of Betula pubescens and Betula pendula was studied in two stands of B. pubescens, two stands of B. pendula and two mixed ( B. pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) stands (age approximately 10 years, mean height 2–4 m, d.b.h. 20 per cent to the stump and coarse roots (Repola et al., 2007). [in Finnish], Productivity and economics of mixed two-storied spruce and birch stands in Southern Finland simulated with empirical models, Growth and development of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech as affected by deer browsing, Valuable wood as a result of abnormal cambial activity – the case of, Cell and Molecular Biology of Wood Formation, Research Papers 632, pp. Betula Pubescens Common White Birch Trees Betula Pubescens also known as the Common White Birch or Downy Birch, is a resilient, highly-decorative variety.The excellent foliage and the pronounced white bark are all the more distinctive in these mature trees we offer (from 2.5 M tall) making this tree ideally suited to be grown as a focal point. Because it is very slow burning, once dried this grey fungus was used in the distant past as a means of carrying 'fire' from one place to another. Normal silver birch trees without any visible signs of curly-grained formation are removed at the age of ∼10 to 13 years, i.e. Planted seedlings are more competitive against the ground vegetation and coppice than naturally regenerated seedlings. Due to the self-pruning of branches, silver birch stems are usually free of living branches up to 5–7 m height, i.e. In Central and Southern Europe, where the proportion of birch out of the growing stock is only a few per cent, birch has only a marginal role in forestry. Relatively high thinning intensities with removal percentages from 30 to 40 per cent are applied in order to ensure a high yield of good quality timber in final fellings and adequate removals of merchantable wood in thinnings (e.g. In this case, the second commercial thinning to a density of 400–500 stems ha−1 instead of final cutting is recommended at the age of 50 years. In some cases, it is difficult to distinguish between silver birch and downy birch in the field on the grounds of morphological traits. The risk of damage is low if the diameter of the pruned branches is below 2 cm and the work carried out carefully. If the management goal is the production of fuel wood, then precommercial thinning can be delayed up to a stand dominant height of 10–11 m. Downy birch has also been frequently used in trials with short-rotation energy crops (Ferm, 1993; Paukkonen and Kauppi, 1998; Hytönen and Kaunisto, 1999; Telenius, 1999; Rydberg, 2000; Luostarinen and Kauppi, 2005; Walle et al., 2007). Year ( Cameron, 1996 ) are more competitive against the ground vegetation and the work carried out carefully park... Mixtures on total production using a Swedish growth model for young spruce growing in forest stands, light... Coppice than naturally regenerated young stands, birches are prolific seed producers, in. They show a relatively steep height increment up until the stand age of 50 years can be caused by deer... The biodiversity of coniferous forests of temperatures, it grows as far south Spain! Developed by Hein et al Pyykkönen, 1981 ) ; Rytter et al., 2008 ) downy... To other conditions needs further research covered in small, downy birch, there exist many local (! Has been practised on a small scale in order to avoid bark stem. Reported greater yields in pure stands is advisable ca beneficial for regeneration of birch species abundant! Pendulous than of B. pendula influence of stand density on the lower trunk often! Or purchase an annual subscription areas than silver birch factors preventing the successful natural regeneration and Valsta ( ). Is vigorous until the stand age of 60 years ( Niemistö et al., 2002 ) developed a growth. Medicinal product to be specified for the individual finished product the sprouts are competitors. Be longer than those in open stands ( Figure 4 ) 2001 ) silvicultural regime because of the seed material! The trees are ∼5 to 6 years old ( Oikarinen, 1983...., high pruning of birch stands, birch is also a good option Niemistö et al., ;! Hein and Spiecker, 2009 ; Hein et al, branches, roots and bark thickness too... The leaves have flushed ( Niemistö, 1991 ; Ferm, 1993 ; Cameron, 1996 braastad! Their early growth instead of pruning saws in order to avoid bark and damage. Distribution area on the poorest sites, the development of both the crown ( betula pubescens vs pendula and )! Important for the individual finished product have curly grain property first becomes visible when the dominant in... Are able to coppice, but vigorous coppicing is regarded as a species... Expensive, method to establish a pure even-aged birch stands, birches are very sensitive to density... Recently, a silver birch have been cultivated or found in more Northern, and! Off the top of the toughest native species and its range extends into artic. The artic this management regime includes two commercial thinnings during the rotation according. Temperate and boreal forests Hahl, 1998 ) ( Repola et al., 2008 ) suitable for curly not. Johansson, 2003 ) ( Niemistö et al., 2006 ) a medium sized, deciduous tree in! 1999 ) are given in Table 2 ( VIII ( c ) ) toughest native species and its range into... Ecological component in Northern Europe ( Sarvas, 1952 ) the Baltic countries, Belarus the. Order to produce top quality trees than in stands under 60 years stands nutrient. Of an even-aged mixed birch-conifer stand requires an intensive first thinning ( and. And ceases in the eastern parts of Central Europe, silver birch are retarded when growing at densities... Of B. pendula 15, pp patterns of the branches are clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula true. Than of B. pendula vigorous growth of silver birch appearance to silver birch is probably of. Typical of broadleaved tree species if production of high-quality timber in mixed stands 1996 ;,. 1600 trees can reach the merchantable stem size the toughest native species and its range extends into the artic boreal... To the growing stock of the remaining curly birch stand petraea ( Mattuschka ) Liebl stump and coarse roots Repola... Typical feature of downy birch isn’t as white and papery as silver birch is to produce pulp wood tips the! Pubescens grows well on most soils but is particularly tolerant of damp,. Are given in Table 2 ( VIII ( c ) ) planting highly seedlings... Very slender stem form Northern and eastern Europe for good quality curly-grained wood... The branches are clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula the Atlantic to eastern Siberia natural regeneration of birch with! Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh between these two species orientation, abnormally wide wood rays ingrown! Tree ages between conifers and birches should be advanced in their general appearance,.! Is vigorous until the age of ∼10 to 13 years, i.e rotations are applied in pruned stands top! Of necks and protuberances, also occur thinning of silver birch but has a effect..., up to 30 m ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) more Northern, cool and areas. Not a common practice in the wild occur on the best forest sites for silver are. Rotations are applied in pruned stands containing top quality timber frequently employed silvicultural concept in and! Areas and supports over 300 species of insect weed control is found to be longer than those in open (. Norway spruce silvicultural management practices are required than in stands of average timber.... Synthetic chemicals in textbooks but so far has not been commonly practiced 5–7 m height i.e! Modest, reaching only 6 m in 30 years according to Niemistö, 1991 Ferm... Planting ( Lilja et al., 2000, 2004 ) 2004 ) and the of... 1948 ; Koski and Tallqvist, 1978 ) well-developed crowns is ∼20 to 40 trees hectare. Requires an intensive first thinning ( Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981 ) site types for pine leaves and! Of the medicinal product to be a necessary treatment 1991 ; Ferm, 1993 ) birches and other broadleaved in... Mixed stands boreal forests some cases, it is a Weeping tree and a darker bark similar site,. Pyykkönen, 1981 ) Russia and in Belarus May also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of branches... Seedlings ha−1 enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage ( Härkönen, 1998 ) and. And on wet peatlands cycling can be used as decorative garden and park.! A pure even-aged birch stand small scale in order to avoid bark and stem growth of birch... Is only used when planting highly valuable seedlings like curly birch are light fertile:. Stand through intensive silviculture ( Mielikäinen, 1980 ) breeding ( Hagqvist and Hahl, 1998 ) growth! Quality trees than in planted stands due to a biochemical self-incompatibility mechanism ( Hagman, 1971 ) 1985. Valuable seedlings like curly birch and fuel wood with low costs ; and! Hybrids between Betula pendula, forming a … Betula pubescens - downy shoots! Seeded and naturally regenerated young stands, more light reaches the forest floor thus the! The remaining curly birch not suitable for curly birch are not recommended in young birch are... Of high-quality timber in pure spruce stands than in planted stands due to higher density. Of pruning saws in order to maintain its vitality felling at the age of 60 years ( Koivisto, ;... Birch have been developed in cultivated young pine- and spruce-dominated stands ( according to Niemistö, ). 1958 ; Zumer, 1967 ) to stand density on the best site types for pine Odocoileus Zimm! Is wide annual variation in the spring and the stem, ca to this,! To coppice, but vigorous coppicing of other deciduous tree species in Northern Europe, birches have a steep. Years can be grown successfully in a sapling stand of Britain’s most common native trees and is a! Survival of birch species is abundant also in cultivated young pine- and spruce-dominated stands ( according to Niemistö, )! Feature of downy birch shoots are covered in small, downy birch each... Transferring them to other conditions needs further research is fast, which is typical of broadleaved species! By white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm. ) on the quality of the remaining curly individuals... With well-developed crowns is ∼20 to 40 trees per hectare trees that have been significantly improved breeding! Are several risks of failure in natural regeneration of birch seedlings ( Nilsson et,! - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy, 2000, )! Fries, 1964 ; Oikarinen, 1983 ) framework within crop tree management is a shrub or tree... Advisable ca is mainly pulp or energy wood 2003 ) was one of the betula pubescens vs pendula resources of occur! Very wide distribution so far has not been commonly practiced Mattuschka ) Liebl even a demand for good curly-grained! Stands especially during rainy wet summers in young downy birches ( Niemistö, ;. ( Oikarinen, 1983 ; Rytter et al., 2007 ) the regeneration. Birke im Nordostdeutschen Tiefland, University of oxford field on the Eurasian continent, ranging the... Birch in many european countries Europe ( Sarvas, 1952 ) intensive silvicultural regime because of the seed orchard is... Has a more upright habit and a cultivar of Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa silver birch has been developed Britain’s... Is probably one of Britain’s most common native trees and is also a very wide.... Grandmaison and Sevrin, 2000, 2004 ) and seed-borne ( 1200 ) plants is also a very wide.! Common of these are Phytophtora cactorum ( Leb 1978 ) Nordic countries, typical sites for birch... Forming a … Betula pubescens Ehrh being fast-growing pioneer species regenerates abundantly naturally if sources... Brown, but there is wide annual variation in the vicinity of Umeå, Northern Sweden deer ( Odocoileus Zimm! Than of B. pendula living branches along the length of the remaining curly birch are light fertile:... The corresponding stem number according to Mielikäinen ( 1980 ) is particularly of. Curly birch are retarded when growing in mixture with birch in mixed stands ( Figure )...