Most Infection takes place through needles in the fall. White pines, especially young trees, and plants belonging to the genus Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are susceptible to the disease. 5 (1 = very little damage 5 = plants killed) Hosts. • Very lethal to young trees. But others require two unrelated hosts for the completion of life cycle, they are called heteroecious rusts. Life cycle: White pine blister rust alternates between five-needle pines and Ribes spp. Plate 173 = Life Cycle -- Puccinia graminis. White pine infection. • Alternates host from white pines to Ribes, a genus that includes currents and gooseberries, depending on the stage of the life cycle. The white pine blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola requires two different plant hosts to complete its complex life cycle. These spores infect pine needles if moisture is present. (currants/gooseberries). Similar to most pine stem rusts, C. ribicola is an obligate parasite of living hosts and has a complex life cycle com-prising multiple spore stages for reproduction, dispersal, and perennial survival. Cronartium ribicola Frequency. Some rust fungi complete their life cycle on a single kind of host, they are known as autoecious rusts. Spores of the fungus produced on white pine are blown to alternate host plants in the genus Ribes (gooseberries and currants). Ribes plants, like gooseberry and currant , often develop leaf symptoms, but rarely see serious damage from pine blister rust, unlike white pine. The disease affects both Eastern and Western white pine for part of the disease cycle. ... (Fig. Pine blister rust is a fungal disease of white pines caused by Cronartium ribicola. The white pine blister rust fungus Cronartium ribicola needs to infect both white pine and a Ribes spp. Plate 224 = Diagnostic Characters-1 -- Uredinales: Pucciniaceae. General Description • Fungus which causes white pine blister rust • Has several host trees but the only host tree in New Jersey is Eastern white pine. Courtesy of Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org (#0355052). Plate 226 = Diagnostic Characters-2 -- Uredinales: Pucciniaceae Life Cycle: Infecting Pine Needles. White pine infection Spores from infected Ribes spp. This fungus has a complicated life cycle, requiring nearby plants in the genus Ribes for intermediary hosts. Spores from infected Ribes spp. Plate 225 = Diagnostic Characters-1 -- Uredinales: Melampsoraceae. 4 (1 = rare 5 = annual) Severity. White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR), caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, is one of the most important diseases of white pines (Pinus sect. Quinquefolius). Plate 174 = Telium of Cronartium ribicola. Cronartium ribicola and related taxa are distributed across temperate Asia, Europe, and North America almost everywhere susceptible hosts occur. 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