Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading. There are around 130 different species of Protea in South Africa.  The three rival resistance movements also engaged in occasional inter-factional clashes as they jockeyed for domestic influence. There are several species of water-storing succulents, like aloes and euphorbias, in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. In 1990, the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the ANC and other political organisations. South Africa has three capital cities: executive Pretoria, judicial Bloemfontein and legislative Cape Town.  In 2017, South Africa signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.. The KwaZulu-Natal–Lesotho international border is formed by the highest portion of the Great Escarpment, or Drakensberg, which reaches an altitude of over 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.  In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. The majority of people in South Africa use informal minibus taxis as their main mode of transport. Zuma asserted that BRICS member countries would also work with each other through the UN, the Group of Twenty (G20) and the India, Brazil South Africa (IBSA) forum.. South African politician, academic, and noted poet Jeremy Cronin cautions: Allowing ourselves to sink into a smug rainbowism will prove to be a terrible betrayal of the possibilities for real transformation, real reconciliation, and real national unity that are still at play in our contemporary South African reality. p. 13. Stretching latitudinally from 22°S to 35°S and longitudinally from 17°E to 33°E, South Africa’s surface area covers 1 219 602 km2.Physical features range from bushveld, grasslands, forests, deserts and majestic mountain peaks, to wide unspoilt beaches and coastal wetlands.The country shares common boundaries with Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland, while the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho is lan…  South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans. In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.. It has been classified by the World Bank as a newly industrialised country, with the second-largest economy in Africa, and the 33rd-largest in the world. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania"..  These people were mainly from Zimbabwe, though many also come from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka. Winters in South Africa occur between June and August.  Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994. This was the original model of colonialism brought by the Dutch in 1652, and subsequently exported from the Western Cape to the Afrikaner Republics of the Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek.  There have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of the constitution, leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression, or a decline in political tolerance. The coastal belt, below the Great Escarpment, moving clockwise from the northeast, consists of the Limpopo Lowveld, which merges into the Mpumalanga Lowveld, below the Mpumalanga Drakensberg (the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment). CBS Biodiversity Series 7", "South African National Biodiversity Institute", "South Africa's Second National Climate Change Report", "Mercury: Rethinking the crisis of local democracy", "Increasing police repression highlighted by recent case", "Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa", "South Africa's recent performance in the Ibrahim Index of African Governance", "Here's how South Africa's crime rate compares to actual warzones", "Global Study on Homicide – Statistics and Data", "Gated communities in South Africa: Comparison of four case studies in Gauteng", "South Africa has world's largest private security industry; needs regulation – Mthethwa", "Bigger than the army: South Africa's private security forces", "Two more S. African farmers killed: death toll now at 3,037", "Police in South Africa arrest 560 'undocumented' foreigners in raid", "GUIDE: Rape statistics in South Africa – Africa Check", "Sexual Violence Against Women in South Africa", "After a Week of Xenophobic Attacks, South Africa Grapples for Answers", "Gauteng xenophobia attacks akin to 2008 crisis – Institute of Race Relations", "Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates (Living Legacies)", "China, South Africa upgrade relations to "comprehensive strategic partnership, "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993 (Section 224)", "Rationalisation in the SANDF: The Next Challenge", "Address by the Minister of Defence at a media breakfast at Defence Headquarters, Pretoria", "Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria's Nuclear Weapons Experience", "South Atlantic Nuclear Event (National Security Council, Memorandum)", "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. "Contextualising the hate speech debate: the United States and South Africa". The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, and South African Sign Language. South African popular musicians that have found international success include Johnny Clegg, rap-rave duo Die Antwoord, and rock band Seether. , After 1994, government policy brought down inflation, stabilised public finances, and some foreign capital was attracted, however growth was still subpar. , The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV. The economy of South Africa is the third largest in Africa. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship. JM Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only one percent of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths.  The country is ranked sixth out of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (former Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town. Its their national cricket team that has unfortunately, and one might say correctly, been tagged with this nickname. Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers, generally called sangomas or inyangas. In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. VI, p. 750.  Other problems include state ownership and interference, which impose high barriers to entry in many areas. , A term used to describe post-Apartheid South Africa, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "South Africa's 'Rainbow Nation' is a myth that students need to unlearn", Creating the Nation: The Rise of Violent Xenophobia in the New South Africa, The demise of post-apartheid and the emergence of post-colonial South Africa, Identity and Nation building in post-Apartheid South Africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rainbow_nation&oldid=993098303, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 19:48. By 2015, 1.4 million students in higher education have benefited from a financial aid scheme which was promulgated in 1999. South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the €1.5 billion Square Kilometre Array project.  Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise. As for his thoughts on why South Africa should be called the Rainbow Nation, Mandela himself said this: Each of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld - a … This relatively well-watered area is home to a great proportion of the country's commercial farmlands and contains its largest conurbation (Gauteng). When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.". Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child (found near Taung) in 1924. Some of the biggest SOEs are Eskom, the electric power monopoly, South African Airways (SAA), and Transnet, the railroad and ports monopoly. In the first quarter of 2011, confidence levels for graduate professionals were recorded at a level of 84% in a Professional Provident Society (PPS) survey. Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961 and rejoined it only in 1994.  In time, the Cape became home to a large population of vrijlieden, also known as vrijburgers (lit. , Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain. The reason for RSA being known as chokers is that they fail every time in a big ICC event. The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Court, which has divisions that serve as the courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court.  On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available. With that system, the government, controlled … The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence.  South Africa is one of the founding members of the African Union (AU), and has the second largest economy of all the members. Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar, and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. p. 186. The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape, Transvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic. The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Buffelsfontein has colder extremes. Why would the official abbreviation come from the country's name in Dutch? It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. the south african team write on tshirt RSA not SA because it means republic of south africa because it is a democrtic country and because it … The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn (Vachellia erioloba). The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean. It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity. Atlas of Southern Africa. , In August 2013, South Africa was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by fDi magazine based on the country's economic potential, labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and foreign direct investment strategy.. South Africa is found at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that reaches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian).At 1,219,912 km 2 (471,011 sq mi), South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is almost the size of Colombia. By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade. South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter.  Queen Elizabeth II lost the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President.  The most severe effect will be targeting the water supply, which has huge effects on the agriculture sector. Despite having a good side each and every time they play they somehow manage to …  Poverty among whites, which was previously rare, increased. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl and Barrydale.. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today. p. 151. To the north of Highveld, from about the 25° 30' S line of latitude, the plateau slopes downwards into the Bushveld, which ultimately gives way to the Limpopo lowlands or Lowveld..  Speedy environmental changes are resulting clear effects on the community and environmental level in different ways and aspects, starting with air quality, to temperature and weather patterns, reaching out to food security and disease burden.. As the Union of South Africa, the country was a founding member of the UN. Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito, that is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of black people worsened between 1994 and 2003 by official metrics, but declined significantly using expanded definitions. Geological map of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland (1970). Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.  Both sides launched bloody but inconclusive offensives, and sporadic violence, often accompanied by livestock theft, remained common for several decades. The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the border with Mozambique and the Indian Ocean. In South Africa, the city is referred to as 'Tshwane' as the municipality changed its name in 2007. The sites include Sterkfontein, one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Whether the rainbow has Newton's seven colours, or five of the Nguni (i.e., Xhosa and Zulu) cosmology, the colours are not taken literally to represent particular cultural groups.  Only 16% of the population is covered by medical aid schemes. The fynbos biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of plant diversity. South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai, a variation of the barbecue. , During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws. Former South African President Jacob Zuma and former Chinese President Hu Jintao upgraded bilateral ties between the two countries on 24 August 2010, when they signed the Beijing Agreement, which elevated South Africa's earlier "strategic partnership" with China to the higher level of "comprehensive strategic partnership" in both economic and political affairs, including the strengthening of exchanges between their respective ruling parties and legislatures.  South Africa has a three-tier system of education starting with primary school, followed by high school and tertiary education in the form of (academic) universities and universities of technology.  The 2011 census figures for these groups were: Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British..  A 2009 survey of 1,738 men in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape by the Medical Research Council found one in four men admitted to raping someone and another survey of 4,000 women in Johannesburg by CIET Africa found one in three said they had been raped in the past year. 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